Lung Cancer Awareness!

Lung Cancer Awareness

November marks the “Lung Cancer Awareness Month” – the second most common type of cancer after Prostrate Cancer in men and Breast Cancer in women.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, regardless of gender. It is categorized into two main groups: small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC, 15% of all lung cancers) and non-SCLC (NSCLC, 85% of all lung cancers). NSCLC has three subtypes: adenocarcinoma (LADC) for 40%,
squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) for 30% and large cell carcinoma for 10%.

When possible, differential diagnosis between adenocarcinoma and SqCC is beneficial because targetable driver genetic alterations are mostly identified in adenocarcinoma, and inappropriate drugs need to be avoided for patients with SqCC. Before the WHO classification, the definitions of adenocarcinoma and SqCC were based on their morphological features with or without mucin staining. Adenocarcinoma was defined as carcinoma with an acinar/tubular structure or mucin production, whereas SqCC was defined as carcinoma with keratinization or intercellular bridges. In the current classification, a solid carcinoma without glandular structures or mucin production, but with immunohistochemical positivity for “adenocarcinoma markers”, i.e., TTF-1 (NKX2-1) and/or Napsin A, is diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma. Similarly, a solid carcinoma without keratinization or intercellular bridges, but with immunohistochemical positivity for “SqCC markers”, such as p40,CK5/6, and TP63 (p63), is diagnosed as SqCC.

DBS offers a complete panel of pulmonary markers which helps the pathologists to diagnose, different and monitor the various types of lung cancers and determine appropriate treatment for the patients.

Napsin A:
Cytokeratin 5/6:

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