Cervical Cancer Awareness

Cervical Cancer
  • In 2020, there were an estimated 604,000 new cases of cervical cancer worldwide. Cervical cancer ranks as the fourth most common cancer among women globally.
  • Cervical cancer is responsible for approximately 342,000 deaths annually. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women.
  • Cervical cancer is largely preventable and treatable, especially when detected early.
  • Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer.
  • For cervical cancer detection, various immunohistochemical markers may be employed to aid in diagnosis and characterization of the disease. Here are some commonly used markers:
  1. HPV 16: The Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) antibody in immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to detect the presence of HPV16 in tissue samples, particularly in the context of cervical cancer diagnosis. HPV16 is one of the high-risk types of human papillomavirus associated with the development of cervical cancer. Detecting the presence of HPV16 in cervical tissue can provide valuable information about the etiology of the lesion and help guide clinical management.
  2. p16: Overexpression of p16INK4a is often associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Strong and diffuse nuclear and cytoplasmic staining for p16INK4a is suggestive of HPV-related changes.
  3. Ki-67: Ki-67 is a nuclear protein associated with cell proliferation. High expression of Ki-67 is often observed in rapidly dividing cells. In cervical cancer, increased Ki-67 expression can indicate abnormal cell growth and proliferation.
  4. p53: The p53 protein is a tumor suppressor that plays a crucial role in cell cycle regulation. Mutations in the TP53 gene are common in many cancers, including cervical cancer. Aberrant expression of p53 can be indicative of genetic alterations associated with malignancy.
  5. Cytokeratins (CKs): Cytokeratins are intermediate filament proteins expressed in epithelial tissues. Various cytokeratins, such as CK7 and CK20, can be used to identify the epithelial origin of tumor cells. In cervical cancer, these markers help confirm the epithelial nature of the lesion.
  6. E-Cadherin: E-Cadherin is a cell adhesion molecule, and its loss is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer. Changes in E-Cadherin expression can be indicative of invasive properties in cervical cancer.

Stay tuned for more such informative posts and lets join hands in the early detection and fight against cancer!